History / Evolution of Computers

The evolution of computers goes long back ago and its very interesting as well as quite important for understanding the working of computer.
Long back about 300B.C first every computing instrument  Abacus was developed which can add and subtract. Gradually afterwards there was importance of an computing instrument. Pascal first computer came in 1642 and other scientist loike napiers and leibnitz done significant work in this field which eventually led to present day computer. MARK-1 was the first modern computer. British mathematician AUGUSTA ADA BYRON was the first ever programmer. BASIC was introduced in 1965. IBM pc was introduced in 1981. First graphical computer “MAC” came in 1984 and microsoft was introduced in 1985. windows 3.1 become most popular in 1992 bthe first general computer was ENIAC( ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR). JOHN VON NEUMAN gave the concept of stored program.
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ENIAC: It was the first general-purpose electronic computer built in 1946 at University of Pennsylvania, USA by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. The completed machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14, 1946. It was named Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed more than 30 short tons (27 t), was roughly 8 by 3 by 100 feet (2.4 m × 0.9 m × 30 m), took up 1800 square feet (167 m2), and consumed 150 kW of power. Input was possible from an IBM card reader, and an IBM card punch was used for output. These cards could be used to produce printed output offline using an IBM accounting machine, such as the IBM 405.
Charles Babbage Known as Father of Modern Computers . Why ?
charlesbabbageCharles Babbage (1791-1871) is acknowledged as the father of modern computers because he foresaw what its basic elements required: storage, control, input, output, decision-making, repetition and programs. Unfortunately, the brilliant Analytical Engine was never completed, due to a breach of faith and money from the British government and a lack of precision milling in that period.

In 1821 Babbage invented the Difference Engine to compile mathematical tables. On completing it in 1832, he conceived the idea of a better machine that could perform not just one mathematical task but any kind of calculation. This was the Analytical Engine (1856), which was intended as a general symbol manipulator, and had some of the characteristics of today’s computers.

Babbage’s Difference Engine  was the first successful automatic calculator and remains one of the finest examples of precision engineering of the time.

In 1985, the Science Museum in London began construction of the Difference Engine using Babbage’s original designs. The calculating device was completed and working by 1991, just in time for the bicentennial of Babbage’s birth. The device consists of 4000 parts and weighs over three metric tons.  The printer for the Difference Engine was completed nine years later, in 2000. It has 4000 parts and weighs 2.5 metric tons.

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